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Vedic Science

Navagrahas: the Nine Planets of Vedic astrology



Navagrahas the Nine Planets of Vedic astrology

The practice of Vedic astrology, the system of predicting one’s destiny based on the position of the stars and planets, is as timeless as ancient India.

Originating from the Vedas, a collection of sacred Hindu texts, astrology is still prevalent today, so much so that many Hindus will consult with an astrologer before pursuing any major life endeavor, or when they are experiencing particular hardship.

Besides explaining to people what their general nature and destiny encompasses, a Vedic  astrologer will often recommend certain remedial measures that can be enacted to help minimize the effects of foreseen negative circumstances. Amongst other things, these measures usually center around performing puja (worship) to a particular planet.

To get a grasp on why Hindus in the 21st century would actually take seriously the idea of worshipping planets to better their life’s situation, it’s essential to understand how the planets are viewed from a Vedic and astrological perspective.

Firstly, it’s important to note nothing in Vedic astrology is actually referred to as a “planet.”

Astrologers instead use the sanskrit term graha, which literally translates as “that which grabs or holds.”

Navagrahas the Nine Planets of Vedic astrology

In his book “Astrology of the Seers,” David Frawley writes:

“Each planet in its orbit gathers in and gives out forces, and thereby transmits a particular wavelength of energy necessary for maintaining the order of the solar system. The planets are perpetually flashing forth with energy in different patterns and cycles of transmission weaving the web of life and creation.”

This energy, as described by Frawley, determines the quality of the time phases in which we live. In other words, the planets affect the condition of each particular chapter of our lives. Planets are described therefore as grahas, because of the way they take hold of and influence  life.

Vedic astrology pays attention to nine grahas, which are collectively referred to as the navagrahas, with nava meaning nine. They include the sun (Surya), moon (Chandra), Mars (Mangala), Mercury (Budha), Jupiter (Brihaspati), Venus (Shukra), Saturn (Shani), Rahu (north node of the moon), and Ketu (south node of the moon).

Rahu and Ketu are subtle grahas with no actual mass. They represent the two points in space where the orbital path of the sun and moon intersect. Because eclipses block light and occur in connection to the nodes, Rahu and Ketu are often called “shadow planets,” and are generally indicators of negative influences.

According to the Vedas, each graha represents a particular aspect of life, and each is under the jurisdiction of a particular deity. Just as Jeff Bezos is the personality behind Amazon and Elon Musk is the personality behind Tesla — companies which are distinct for having certain qualities and providing certain services, there are personalities behind grahas, which are distinct for delivering and maintaining the different conditions of an individual’s life.

Navagrahas the Nine Planets of Vedic astrology

Life is ultimately meant for spiritual growth. This growth is enabled by karma, the Hindu concept that every thought and action has a corresponding reaction.

Through karma, good acts uplift one’s consciousness to a more selfless plane of living, while bad acts lower the consciousness to a more self-centered plane. Thus, a person experiences lessons in empathy, and is encouraged to live a life of love and gratitude.

People experience karma over a series of lives in a cycle of birth and death known as samsara, in which they are faced with the lessons they must go through in order to grow.

The deities of the navagrahas are in charge of delivering us these lessons, and therefore play an integral role in helping to facilitate our spiritual development.

Venus, for example, is ruled by a deity called Shukra. Including other things, Venus generally represents the wife in a man’s horoscope. Hence, a poorly placed Venus can often indicate marital problems, or even issues in finding a wife.

Perhaps in a past life, a man took his wife and marriage for granted and as a result, is now having a hard time finding a partner. Seeing a poorly placed Venus, the astrologer might recommend the man perform some sort of puja to appease Shukra into minimizing the bad marital karma.

As stated before, life is ultimately meant for one’s spiritual evolution. Experiencing troubles in finding a partner is not Divinity’s way of enacting revenge. It’s to help a person better appreciate the value of such a partner.

A person, therefore, should not view hardships merely as hurdles on the path of hedonistic pursuit. Life’s obstacles should be seen as opportunities for gaining spiritual maturity, and the deities of grahas should be approached as revered teachers of these lessons.


The influence of the stars, planets and other elements of the cosmos on our existence is undeniable. Planetary positions and conjunctions at a given point in time can create, support and disrupt harmony in nature. While the energies exerted by these forces have a visible and marked impact on life on our planet, these energies also have an intangible, deeper connect with our everyday lives – our joys and sorrows.

The word graha means ‘to grasp’. Planets are believed to grasp and exert karmic forces that affect our lives, both in a positive and negative manner. A graha can be auspicious or inauspicious for an individual or a group of people – even nations – based on its planetary position at a given point of time. The subtle energies conveyed by the grahas affect the physical and mental faculties of living beings, thus impacting our karmas and the consequences thereof.

Jyotisha-shastram, an important branch of Vedic studies – also known as a Vedanga or one of the limbs of the Vedas – is a comprehensive study of how the various elements of the cosmos and their interplay affect our lives, individually and collectively, and our karmas. The karma phalas or ‘fruits of our karmas’ are believed to have far-reaching outcomes across life-times. Astrological charts are, therefore, drawn based on planetary positions and individual horoscopes are made factoring in the location of different planets and their impact at the time of one’s birth. A horoscope is, basically, a karmic chart. It is sort of a balance sheet giving a snapshot of our assets and liabilities, in the form of good and bad karmas as reflected by the planetary conjunctions, and an analysis of the same provides information about potential opportunities and pitfalls in our lives.


Worship of the Sun, the Moon and other planets, together called as the Navagrahas or the nine celestial bodies, is an important aspect of the Hindu way of life. These deities include the Sun or Surya and the Moon or Chandra along with seven other planetary bodies, namely, Mercury or Budha, Mars or Mangala, Venus or Sukra, Jupiter or Brihaspati/Guru, Saturn or Sani followed by Rahu representing the North Lunar Node and Ketu representing the South Lunar Node. Rahu and Ketu are known as ‘shadow planets’ and are depicted as the head and tail of a demonic snake, respectively. Seven of the nine grahas are linked to the seven days of the week as per the Hindu calendar and are also worshipped individually on these days.

Stories and descriptions about the navagrahas as well as their impact are found throughout our epics such as the Ramayana and the Mahabharata and Puranas including the Brahmanda Purana, the Matsya Purana, the Shiva Purana, the Linga Purana, the Kurma Purana, the Garuda Purana, the Vayu Purana and the Bhavishya Purana.

While Maharishi Valmiki has given a detailed account of the planetary positions at the time of Rama’s birth, Maharishi Vyasa has sketched out the astral landscape leading up to the start of the great Mahabharata war. These details have now proved extremely useful as we seek to ascertain possible dates for the key events of the Ramayana and Mahabharata.

References to planets and deities associated with them are also found in ancient Greek and Roman literature and astrology.

Surya or Sun is central to the solar system, the provider of energy and, therefore, represents life-force, intelligence and prosperity. Chandra or Moon is closely linked to water bodies and influences the mind and emotions. Mangala or Mars is associated with courage and aggression, while Budha or Mercury impacts learning, analytical and communication skills. Guru or Jupiter symbolises wisdom and knowledge and is considered a key catalyst for success, while Sukra or Venus stands for wealth, beauty and desire. Rahu and Ketu are considered powerful points of energy and represent conflicts and ‘karmic’ effects from previous lives.


Sani or Saturn is representative of austerity and discipline, which are important characteristics for leading a spiritual and fruitful life. This graha is often misunderstood and feared to have sweeping negative effects on people. However, under the influence of Sani, one develops a strong sense of responsibility and resilience, the ability to endure and overcome hardships. Sani is also known to shower immense blessings and spiritual strength.

The ‘shadow planets’, Rahu and Ketu, are also believed to have malefic influences during certain hours of the day. For instance, the duration of time wherein Rahu is believed to have negative influence is known as Rahu kaalam. Auspicious ceremonies and important new activities are usually not undertaken during these hours.

The navagrahas are also known to have an impact on the different parts of our bodies and their smooth functioning. For instance, Surya provides longevity and good health, Chandra has an impact on the digestive system, fertility and mental health, Mangala affects muscular strength, Budha causes respiratory and skin-related issues, Guru impacts metabolism, liver and pancreas, Sukra the reproductive organs, while Sani is associated with nerve-related issues and Rahu and Ketu with fears and phobias.

Most temples in South India have, within the temple complex, a place devoted to the navagrahas, where devotees offer prayers and do parikrama or circumambulate the deities, nine times. The navagrahas are usually placed on a black coloured stone or granite pedestal. They are placed in a single square with Surya at the centre surrounded by the other eight deities.

Interestingly, no two navagraha deities are placed facing each other. The directions in which these deities are placed on the pedestal typically based upon whether the temple follows Agama Pratishtha or Vaidika Pratishtha. There are also other kinds of installations and manifestations of the navagraha deities that are found in different temples around the country.

The navagrahas are also represented in the form of navagraha vruksha vanas, which is a cluster of nine different trees that correspond to each of the nine grahas.

Our tradition of worshipping the navagrahas with their different individual positive and negative characteristics and effects, collectively as one unit, is a hallmark of the celebration of multiplicity in our daily lives, in our ecosystems, in our universe.


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Vaastu Shastra

History of Vastu Shastra



History of Vastu Shastra

Vastu Shastra (or short just Vastu) is the Indian science of space and architecture and how we may create spaces and environment that supports physical & spiritual health and prosperity.

Vastu Shastra evolved during Vedic times in India. The concept of Vastu Shastra was transferred to Tibet, South East Asia and finally to China and Japan where it provided the base for the development of what is now known as Feng Shui.

Vastu Shastra is the art and science of designing houses, offices, temples etc that swirl with good energy. Indian Maharajas and Moghul Emperors used Vastu Shastra when they built their symmetrical palaces, artificial lakes, and geometric courtyards that thirstily absorbed positive energy.

Like feng shui, Vastu Shastra is based on an octagon with the four directions being the anchors. Hindus believe that gods live in each of the quarters of the house, and govern the rooms, possessions, and activities in these locations.

Vasthu is an inherent energy concept of science. We cannot see energy with our naked eyes but we can realize and see its application in different forms and fashions. Vastu Shastra uses the forces of natural energies and aims to restore the balance between the home (the microcosm) and the cosmos (the macrocosm).

Vastu Shastra is not only a science, but is a bridge between man and nature, thus teaching us the Art of Living. Just like every subject of human aspect is governed with rules, regulations and acts, similarly the nature has also got certain key factor principles for smooth governing of its residents, in which Vastu Shastra stands for the law of natural energies.

Vastu, which literally means to live, works on the premise that the earth is a living organism, out of which other living organisms emerge. This life energy is known as Vaastu Purusha. The Vastu Shastra works for a bounded premise i.e., a house, building, industrial area or shop. The main aim is to form a balance between the outside atmosphere and the atmosphere within the premise. Vastu Shastra makes use of five elements – prithvi (earth), agni (fire), tej (light), vayu (wind) and akash (ether), the earth’s magnetic fields i.e. the north and the south pole and the sun’s rays.

History of Vastu Shastra

Vastu Shastra dates back to the times when the sages lived – probably 6,000 and 3,000 BC. The mention of Vastu Shastra can be found in ancient scriptures like the Rigveda, Atharvaveda, Ramayana, Mahabharata, Mayamatam, Manasa saar, etc. Ancient Indian architecture depended on this science for the building of almost all the palaces and temples. Although the exact origins of Feng Shui are debatable, it is thought to have originated about five thousand years ago. Scholars have recorded various aspects of Feng Shui as early as the Song Dynasty (960 BC). However, the basic principles of Feng Shui were first written down during the Han dynasty (25 AD).

How Vastu Shastra works

Vastu Shastra works on three principles of design that cover the entire premise. The first one is Bhogadyam, which says that the designed premise must be useful and lend itself to easy application. The second is Sukha Darsham, in which the designed premise must be aesthetically pleasing. The proportions of the spaces and the material used, in the interiors and exteriors of the building – ornamentation, colour, sizes of the windows, doors and the rooms and the rhythms of projection and depressions – should be beautiful. The third principle is Ramya, where the designed premise should evoke a feeling of well being in the user.

Also, Vastu Shastra is a complicated form of science put together by seventeen sages. There are certain rules that should be followed while building a house or a building. For instance, the building’s underground water tank or well should be situated in the northeast direction. But, if the building has an overhead tank then it should be placed in the southwest direction. Also, more space should be left to the north and the east of the building compound and less on the south and the west. Open space should be kept around the building and if the plot has a road on the east-north directions, it is better for the inhabitants.

Some short principles of Vastu Shastra

  • Indra, the god of gods, is positioned to the East. The East is where it all begins in Vastu Shastra. When people build their homes, the main door or the entrance is always facing the East. The eastern direction is the harbinger of good luck, which comes into the house through the door.
  • Kubera, the god of wealth, resides in the north. In this location some symbolic valuables should be placed to attract wealth.
  • The Northeast is the position for Dharma, the god of righteousness. In Vastu Shastra, this is the place for worship, meditation and introspection.
  • Agni, the god of fire, lives in the southeast corner. This should be the place of the kitchen.
  • Yama, the god of death, resides in the South. He prevents the evil eye from taking control of our lives. In India, people put a ghoulish pumpkin mask, similar to Halloween masks, in Yama’s position to ward off the evil eye.
  • Niruthi, who prevents homes from being robbed, dwells in the southwest corner.

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Vedic Science

Description of Solar Eclipse in the Rig Veda



solar eclipse in rig veda

India is rich not only in its culture and traditional values but also in the vast knowledge ancient Vedic scriptures have to offer. 

Among the four Vedas, the Rig Veda is the oldest.  The others are Yajur, Sama and Atharva.  They are a compilation of suktas or hymns from many different Sages over a vast span of historical time which is evident by different astronomical reference presented.  Rishi Ved Vyas bundled these various hymns into different groups much after their creation.

It is in Rig Veda that Rishi Atri, the human son of Brahma, speaks of eclipses in metaphors of demons and devas.

In Chapter 5, Hymn 40 the Sage explains:

यत तवा सूर्य सवर्भानुस तमसाविध्यद आसुरः |
yat tvā sūrya svarbhānus tamasāvidhyad āsuraḥ |
O Sūrya, when the Asura’s descendant Svarbhanu, pierced thee through and through with darkness

अक्षेत्रविद यथा मुग्धो भुवनान्य अदीधयुः ||
akṣetravid yathā mughdho bhuvanāny adīdhayuḥ ||
All creatures looked like one who is bewildered, who knoweth not the place where he is standing.

सवर्भानोर अध यद इन्द्र माया अवो दिवो वर्तमाना अवाहन |
svarbhānor adha yad indra māyā avo divo vartamānā avāhan |
What time thou smotest down Svarbhanu’s magic that spread itself beneath the sky, O Indra,

गूळ्हं सूर्यं तमसापव्रतेन तुरीयेण बरह्मणाविन्दद अत्रिः ||
ghūḷhaṃ sūryaṃ tamasāpavratena turīyeṇa brahmaṇāvindad atriḥ ||
By his fourth sacred prayer Atri disoovered Sūrya concealed in gloom that stayed his function.

मा माम इमं तव सन्तम अत्र इरस्या दरुग्धो भियसा नि गारीत |
mā mām imaṃ tava santam atra irasyā drughdho bhiyasā ni ghārīt |
Let not the oppressor with this dread, through anger swallow me up, for I am thine, O Atri.

तवम मित्रो असि सत्यराधास तौ मेहावतं वरुणश च राजा ||
tvam mitro asi satyarādhās tau mehāvataṃ varuṇaś ca rājā ||
Mitra art thou, the sender of true blessings: thou and King Varuṇa be both my helpers.

solar eclipse in rig veda

गराव्णो बरह्मा युयुजानः सपर्यन कीरिणा देवान नमसोपशिक्षन |
ghrāvṇo brahmā yuyujānaḥ saparyan kīriṇā devān namasopaśikṣan |
The Brahman Atri, as he set the press-stones, serving the Gods with praise and adoration,

अत्रिः सूर्यस्य दिवि चक्षुर आधात सवर्भानोर अप माया अघुक्षत ||
atriḥ sūryasya divi cakṣur ādhāt svarbhānor apa māyā aghukṣat ||
Established in the heaven the eye of Sūrya, and caused Svarbhanu’s magic arts to vanish.

यं वै सूर्यं सवर्भानुस तमसाविध्यद आसुरः |
yaṃ vai sūryaṃ svarbhānus tamasāvidhyad āsuraḥ |
The Atris found the Sun again, him whom Svarbhanu of the brood

अत्रयस तम अन्व अविन्दन नह्य अन्ये अशक्नुवन ||
atrayas tam anv avindan nahy anye aśaknuvan ||
Of Asuras had pierced with gloom. This none besides had power to do.

The Sage describes how Svarbhanu created eclipses of the Sun and Moon and how Sun appears after an eclipse in the sky.

Svarbhanu is Sva+Bha+Anu.

Sva means sky. Bha means light. Anu means follower.  Compiled together it means follower of light that is present in the sky.  This phenomenon of eclipse is seen due to this shadow where the word Asura stands for the shadow of the moon and not a demon.

Rig Veda says that Svarbhanu was not from the heaven but from the earth, which explains that the moon is a natural satellite of the earth and that it does not have its own brightness but rather reflects the light of the sun.

As shadow of the moon starts covering a large part of the sun, the red tinge of the solar chromosphere becomes visible which is described as the red sheep by Rishi Atri.

When the full solar eclipse takes effect, only the corona can be seen.  This is described as the colour of silver sheep.  When the eclipse is completely over, the sun is restored to its original bright lustre which is described as the colour of white sheep.

In the fifth stanza tells of all the creatures being frightened and in a terrible condition during the full solar eclipse.  The Sage explains that the darkness at the time of this eclipse is different from the normal darkness of the night.  The most affected by this darkness are the birds and animals.

It is a well known fact that India’s rich Vedic tradition has had a powerful influence in the field of astronomy and many eclipse events are well documented in the ancient scriptures.

(English translation of the Vedas by Ralph Griffith)

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Vaastu Shastra

Vastu for Pooja Room in Home for Positive Energy



Vastu for Pooja Room in Home for Positive Energy

In the present times, Vastu Shastra is the most commonly used term, especially when it comes to purchasing or constructing a new home. To have a happy and prosperous household you must lay stress on enhancing the positive energy inside your home. Vastu Shastra increases wealth, well being and prosperity if you live in structures that allow positive cosmic forces.

One of the most important and sacred corner in any home is a zone of tranquility, the prayer or meditation area; usually known as ‘Pooja Ghar’. Although placement of a Puja Ghar itself brings positive energies in a home, but designing this sacred place as per Vastu guidance enhances positivity in the environment all around. According to Vastu Shastra, the North East zone or the Eeshan (Ishan) corner of a house is the best suited area for placing the Puja room.

It is believed that when Vastu Purush was brought down to the earth, his head laid in the north-east direction. So, while worshipping in this direction along with coming closer to the deity, we also pay obeisance to him. The direction also receives the purifying rays of the rising sun, which purifies the environment and brings positivity and prosperity into our homes.

Follow the below mentioned attributes in order to get an ideal Puja room:

  • Never locate the Puja room in the south and the south-east, as these directions are ruled by Yama and Agni, respectively.
  • Never locate the Puja space in the bedroom, as this place is for rest and pleasure. However if there is no choice, locate it in the north-east corner of the room. Take care that your feet do not point towards this corner while lying on the bed.
  • Avoid locating the toilet above, below or opposite to this room to prevent the negative energies of the toilet from spoiling the auspicious atmosphere of the Puja room.
  • This room should also not be constructed next to the kitchen or located under a staircase. In case you do make the Puja space in the kitchen, keep the deity in such a way that you face east while praying.
  • In very big plots, factories or apartments, the prayer room can be located in the centre or the Brahmasthana, the sector governed by Lord Brahma, the Creator.
  • Make the roof of the Puja room dome or pyramid-shaped. This facilitates smooth flow of positive energies from the tip to the dome or pyramid into the puja room. This shape also assists in meditation.
  • Use tranquil colours on the walls of the Puja room like white, soft shades of yellow, blue or violet. These colours do not distract while praying.
  • Ideally, the doors and windows of this room should open towards the east or north. These should be made of good quality wood and have double shutters.
  • Although north-east is generally the direction recommended for locating the idols or pictures of various Gods; yet different deities have different auspicious locations as described:
    • Brahma, Vishnu, Mahesh, Kartikeya, Indra and Surya are placed in the east and facing towards west.
    • Ganesh, Durga, Kuber, Shodas Matrika and Bhairav in the north direction and facing south.
    • Hanuman in the north-east facing south-west, but never in the south-east as it creates fire hazard.
  • Never keep idols brought from ancient temples in the puja room. Also avoid Shrichakra and Shaligram idols, unless you have tremendous spiritual control and are capable of performing puja in a traditional manner.
  • Never display photographs of the dead family members along with the deities.
  • The height of idols should not be more than 18 inches and should always be placed on a high platform or singhasan.
  • Keep the holy books or dharmic granths and other items of samagri and dresses of the deities along the west and south wall.
  • The lamp or deepak should be placed in the south-east direction, governed by Agni.
  • The Puja room should not be used for other purposes, like storing items that do not belong here. It should also not be used for sleeping purposes or to conceal money and other valuables.
  • Never keep a dustbin in the Puja room, as the positive energy gets diminished due to the negative energies emitted by it.
  • If you ensure the above mentioned points, you would not only add to the serenity of the room, but would also find yourself spiritually uplifted with increased powers of meditation.
  • Dr. Prem Kumar Sharma, resident astrologer of Hindustan Times and Vastu consultant, has authored many books including ‘A Comprehensive Book on Vastu’ and ‘Cultivate Your Relationship the Vastu Way’.

~ By Astrologer Dr. Prem Kumar Sharma

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