In India, one can spot many men wearing turban. Well, turban is tied not for the sake of fashion, but because it has a lot of significance in the lives of Indians. The hair turban is a headdress that basically consists of a long piece of un-stitched cloth, which is wrapped around the head. The hair turban used in India is usually 5 meters in length. Each time, the wrapping is unfolded and tied all over again.
The turban more commonly known as pagri was initially tied to keep the head cool. It was actually a way to escape from the blazing heat or to put succinctly a means to beat the scorching heat of sun. To cope with the hot climatic conditions of desert, this long piece of cloth was soaked in water overnight and then tied in the morning. The different layers of turban kept wet throughout the day and thus provided a great relief.
From region to region, the style of turban draping differs. Out of all the turbans, Rajasthani and Sikh turbans are especially popular. People in the Middle East, Central Asia and South Asia are known for tying turbans. Modern turbans come in varied sizes, colors and shapes. In the western countries, the turban serves as the hat for women. These turbans are mostly stitched so that they can be easily worn and taken off.
Well, turban has a lot of reverence and significance in the Sikh religion. People who join the Khalsa Panth are forbidden to cut their hair. Sikh men wear turban so as to manage their long hair. In the Sikh religion, the turban is known as dastar, which is considered to be a very respectful Punjabi word.
Rajasthan is a very big state exhibiting a wide diversity. In Rajasthan, as you travel from one city to another, you’ll find men wearing absolutely different turbans. In Rajasthan, the turban is known as pagri or safa. There are certain parts in Rajasthan, where the size of turban is evocative to the position and status of the person in society.
In the districts of Kodagu and Mysore, turban is known as Mysore peta. Here, the is considered to be a source of pride. Notable personalities are honored by presenting them the Mysore peta. This in itself is suggestive of the fact as to how much significance the turban has for the people in Mysore. In the district of Kodagu, men team their ethnic dress with a turban on the celebration of special occasions.
IMPORTANCE OF “TURBAN” IN ANCIENT INDIAN CULTURE
(1) In ancient Indian society Paagh-Paaghdi and Saafa spoke of a person’s/ Individual’s caste, creed, religion and sect.
(2) In ancient times through his Paagh-Paaghdi and Saafa, an individual’s village, town, region & country could be identified.
(3) Paag-Paaghdi & Saafa were instrumental in recognising an Individual’s social,economic and political status.
(4) In ancient times Indain history also speaks of several wars fought for the pride & honour of Paagh-Paaghdi.
(5) “CHANGE THE PAAGHDI” – The history is also a witness to several occasions of exchange of ‘Paaghdi’ to save its peoples’ life & property and to ensure the security of a particular state.
(6) An Individual’s wearing of Paagh-Paaghdi and Saafa symbolised his valour & to secure its pride & honourwas considered to be an act of bravery.
(7) The information regarding an individual was evident from the manner in which his Paagh-Paaghdi and Saafa is tied & drapped. In ancient times, looking to an individual’s Paagh-Paaghdi and Saafa’s sheerelegance & tightness, it could be said whether he was brave or coward, an upright man or honest or a thief.
(8) An insult of Paagh-Paaghdi and Saafa was equated with the insult of its bearer – as was believed in ancient times. For its pride & honour, the history speaks of several occasions when blows of swords were exchanged for enemies blood.
(9) In ancient period Paagh-Paaghdi and Saafa were considered to be a man’s prized belongings, invaluable in nature.
(10) In ancient period, Paagh-Paaghdi and Saafa during the times of personal economic crises wasmortaged.
(11) The information of a person’s death during the war for the country’s honour was symbolized when a Paagh-Paaghdi of that person was brought with full state honours from the battle field.
(12) In the present age, ‘Paaghdi’ has acquired importance in terms of paying “paaghdi” to acquire some space or shop for business.
(13) In today’s time, ‘Paaghdi” has played invaluable role in turning impossible into possible as it is still looked upon as an object of great honour & pride.
Impact of Western Society on the Indian Culture
~ Rajalakshmi Joshi
Indian Culture, which is one of the oldest & richest cultures, is now under serious threat as western culture is making its strong base in India and slowly and gradually wiping out the Indian culture. It had already made its presence in Metro’s & now slowly heading towards other parts of India. Westernization has greatly affected our traditions, customs, our family and our respect and love for others.
The concept of joint families is fading fast, and everyone wants to remain aloof. Now nobody is interested in other’s affairs and only cares for himself which is totally contradictory to our Indian culture that teaches us to be a part and parcel of the society, sharing each other’s Joys and sorrows. All our rich values and traditions are slowly dying down, Western Culture is taking its place. People are blindly following it without knowing the consequences. Westernization has given rise to single families.
Marriages are breaking & our tolerance and patience has exhausted. The most affected are our new blooms, which have yet to sprout. They find themselves stressed and isolated in this new atmosphere, since there is no one to take care of them. They no more get the care and love of their Grandparents. They find themselves in crutches to be taken care by others. It is very unfortunate that the new sprouts remain untouched and cut off from our great moral values and sanskaaras. In today’s Scenario both husband & wife are working.
There is no one at home to look after them and to cultivate the sanskaaras in them since our elders who use to give these sanskaaras to their grand children are no longer with them. In many cases it is not deliberate but in majority of cases the children prefer to remain away from their parents which is very unfortunate.
There’s no harm in taking good things from the west, but this does not mean that we should become slave to their culture, and misrepresent our identity. It is understandable that India is a growing country, so it is necessary of knowing all the cultures and their traditions. To some extent it is fine, but it is wrong to pretend and behave like Westerners and discard our own culture. We have to preserve our identity.
It is shocking to see that Indians are forgetting their culture. On the contrary westerners are looking towards Indian spirituality for solving their personal, social and national problems. They are coming to India to find peace through Yoga and Meditation. India has earned a good name in the field of Yoga and Meditation abroad. Our gurus are giving teachings to westerners how to relax & how to keep themselves fit and away from diseases.
It is very unfortunate that today’s generation has very little knowledge about their culture, traditions and roots. This is not their fault but the fault of their parents who do not enlighten them about their roots, rich cultural and heritage. Contradictory to it, Parents feel proud in giving their children western Sanskaras, and they are brought up in western atmosphere. Thus, they are kept miles away from Indian culture.
There is no harm in giving knowledge of other cultures and traditions as Indians have made their presence in every part of world, but it is necessary that they should have knowledge of their own culture, traditions and language. We should also take care that our new sprouts are well versed with Indian culture and its values. It is the responsibility of parents to cultivate our rich culture and heritage in their children.
No doubt the western culture is versatile and teaches self-dependence, but this does not mean that we should forget our culture and blindly follow the westerners. We should always feel proud that we, the Indians have such a rich cultural heritage which is very rare and should be carried forward and cultivated in the minds of our New blooms who are going to be our future.
Karnavedha Sanskar – Importance of Ear Piercing in Hinduism
In India, this is called as Karna(ear) Vedha(piercing) ((Sanskrit: कर्णवेध) and is one of the Shodasha Samskaras (16 ceremonies) performed on a human between birth and death.
Ear Piercing or Karna Vedha is an ancient ceremony performed on both male and female in many countries.
This is seen across cultures in almost all continents where human civilization inhabited.
Common between male and females, it is intended to open the inner ears of the child for receiving sacred sounds. This rite has deep mystical and symbolic significance. It is believed that merely hearing sacred sounds has merit in that it cleanses sin and nurtures the spirit.
In China, this Acupuncture and Acupressure is done at a particular point on ear and it is believed to cure or prevent asthma.
Behind the ear lobe there is a natural, small microscopic depression which contains nerve endings linked with diseases like bronchial asthma, cough and tuberculosis.
Chinese science of acupuncture states that the root cause of some diseases lies in the subtle regions of every organ in the body.
When that area is punctured, the related disease is eliminated. Study of this science was done and recorded in the Vedas much earlier and the sanskar of piercing the ear lobes was already implemented on both genders of kids.
The metal (like gold or copper) earrings are believed to help in maintaining the flow of electric current in a human body. It is also believed that ear piercing helps in maintaining the regularity in the menstrual cycle of a girl.
This part of the ear is the intuitive, Third Eye, or psychic point. It is very important that only gold, and not silver, be worn here on the ear lobe. Gold, combined with an amethyst or emerald (which are both traditionally regarded as very spiritual stones), will have an added positive effect on the function of intuition.
Ayurveda researcher and surgeon on ancient India, Susruta (6th century BC) says, “Ears of a child should be bored for protection (from diseases in his opinion) and decoration.” He explicitly prescribes the boring of ears for preventing hydrocele and hernia.
Susruta gives a very cautious procedure of the ceremony. He says that the ceremony should be performed in the sixth or seventh month, in the bright half and on an auspicious day. After the preliminaries the child should be put on the lap of the mother or the nurse. Then the child should be fondled and persuaded by means of toys. Now the surgeon should pull the ears with his left hand and bore them slowly at the natural holes which are visible in the sunlight. If the ears are tender they should be pierced with a needle, if stiff with a probe. After boring oil should be applied to the ears by means of a cotton thread or bougie.
Father of Western medicine, Hippocrates, wrote about ear piercing and earring wearing around 470 BC as a remedy and treatment for menstrual problems. Galen also wrote about the same thing. In ancient times, if there was a deficiency in energy or chi, gold earrings would be placed in a pierced acu-point for stimulation. Silver earrings were used if there was excessive energy.
Ancient people treated diseases of feminine Yin organs via earrings in the left ear and diseases of the male Yang organs via the right ear. The left side of the body is the feminine side and the right side of the body is masculine.
The belly button is the seat of eroticism and sexual passion. It arouses sexual passion. This is why most belly dancers have their belly buttons pierced.
All other modern day piercings like tongue, eyebrows, nipples, sexual organs etc are simply Fad and only to express their taste. They have nothing to do with health or spirituality.
A Vegetarian Ethical Diet for Peace and Plenty
~ R. P. Jain, director of Motilal Banarsidass
Vegetarianism affords an ethical diet for peace and plenty. It is good for health, spirituality, sound ethics, balanced ecology and favorable economics. These are among the reasons a plant-based diet beats meat eating.
In India, the land of AHIMSA (nonviolence) people have traditionally been vegetarian. Hailing from a family of staunch vegetarians, I consider myself fortunate to be living in harmony with the principles of nature. As a follower of Jainism, I strongly advocate a vegetarian diet, which I find superior not only from a moral stance, but also from the health and culinary points of view. Guests at our home, coming from both vegetarian and non-vegetarian backgrounds, are always overwhelmed with what they describe as the unbelievable taste and richness of our vegetarian cuisine.
Sadly, in recent times many Hindus, Jains and Buddhists, especially of the younger generation, are no longer so strict about our precepts and have taken to non-vegetarian food, mostly following the misconception that meat-eating is healthy. Truth must be told; a vegetarian diet is actually much healthier than one based on animal protein. It is argued that there is a lot of protein in meat and eggs, but we do not need so much concentrated protein in our diet. There is plenty of protein in nuts, seeds, pulses and dairy products, which are also far easier to digest.
Vegetarianism supports mental and physical health as well as spiritual cultivation. Fruits, vegetables, pulses, nuts and milk products provide a balanced diet, which does not make our system toxic. This is primarily because when an animal is killed, it becomes dead matter. In the case of many vegetables, if we eat part of the vegetable and re-plant another part, it can grow again; it is still a living organism. It is a healthy sign that more and more people in the US, UK, Europe and other parts of the world are taking to a vegetarian diet in modern times, chiefly due to health reasons. There is a growing acceptance in the West that vegetarianism connotes a more positive way of living than flesh eating. In India, the pilgrimage destination of Haridwar still enjoys the status of being a vegetarian city. Even in Japan, known to be virtually 100 percent non-vegetarian, you can now find vegetarian restaurants. My friend Martin Gluckman, who runs the Vedic Society and teaches organic and Ayurvedic cooking in South Africa, hails Indian vegetarianism in the following words: “India has the world’s greatest cuisine and most variety of dishes, boasting to its amazing cultural and spiritual heritage. It has a time tested vegetarian cuisine offering a delight for all senses and the heart.”
India can be proud to have the world’s largest per-capita number of vegetarians (I have read reports of more than 40%). No other country can make such a statement of humanity and nonviolence. The vegetarian culture and lifestyle are India’s greatest achievement and gift to the world. Only in years to come will the true value of this gift be known.” It is important that we remain vegetarian not only for our health and nutrition, but from the points of view of spirituality, compassion, ethics, ecology and economics as well. When we see the end product of meat in the supermarket or leather in the shoe store, there is a long chain of violence that created it. These products endorse and perpetuate violence in our society, which contributes to the terrorism that is rampant across the world. Eating habits reflect upon a human being’s thoughts, speech and behavior. A non-vegetarian diet makes one prone to violence. By moving away from food of violence we can move rapidly toward world peace.
Albert Einstein affirmed, “It is my view that the vegetarian manner of living, by its purely physical effect on human temperament, would most beneficially influence the lot of mankind.” When a helpless animal is killed by a deliberate act of violence, it dies in great dread. Its body is flush with hormones produced by fear. These toxic substances enter the body of the person who eats the flesh and adversely affect his or her body and mind. I have always wondered, how can the carcass of an animal that died in mortal fear give good health and refined, spiritual inclinations to its consumer?
Additionally, meat production is one of the most environmentally damaging industries in terms of pollution and inefficient use of agricultural land. According to a 2006 report from the United nations Food & agriculture Organization, livestock production is responsible for more greenhouse gasses than all the motor vehicles in the world, plus it severely degrades land and water. It is also necessary to remove the myth and argument that vegetarians will not get enough food if non-vegetarians do not eat meat. This is a fallacy. It has been conclusively proven that more people can be sustained on vegetarian food than a diet based on meat. Live- stock occupy over 30 percent of our planet’s land surface, and 33 percent of global arable land is used to grow their feed, pointing to why a meat-based diet requires seven times more land than a plant-based diet. Thus, one of the easiest ways to help restore our environment and feed more people is to stop raising and killing animals for human consumption. We have no right to take the life of an animal when we cannot give it.
Economically, a vegetarian diet is preferable to a non-vegetarian diet. The same energy one can get from meat and eggs one can get from pulses and cereals. It actually costs three or four times as much money to produce an equivalent amount of calories from animal sources as from vegetable sources. Some people may worry that self-control and too much care about nature would hamper development and bring about poverty. We know too well, however, that the more we consume, the more expensive things become, leading to the growth of the destitute class. Reckless commercial development also results in economic and social crises, bringing further suffering to the poor.
AHIMSA does not deny economic development; it only exercises self-control, limits our desires. Desires are endless. More and more desires give rise to materialism and extraordinary greed, far beyond basic human needs and sustainable consumption. Greed results in the destruction of the very roots of our life. If we want to prevent the world from becoming a barren desert and our societies from growing into monstrous systems of injustice and suffering, self-control and nonviolence appear as the only reasonable answer – not only for Jains, but for people of any creed. For any spiritual being, the destruction of life, be it in the air, the water or on the ground, is undesirable. But even if you do not subscribe to this principle, you will agree that reckless destruction of life could eventually lead to mankind’s own demise. Jainism is not the only Indian school advocating nonviolence and self-control as central principles. Buddhism and Hinduism equally preach them.
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